Manajemen Proyek

This is a course notes of Managing IT Project. The references are Schwalbe’s book and PMBOK.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Project Manager

What is a project, program, portfolio?

  • Project, handled by Project Manager, is something that
    • temporary (defined beginning & end)
    • has unique purpose
    • developed using progressive elaboration
    • require various resources
    • have primary customer & sponsor
    • uncertain
  • Program, handled by Program Manager, is group of related projects managed coordinately to gain benefit

Project Management is application of knowledge, skill, tools & technique in project activities to meet project requirement; discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, & controlling resources to achieve goals within constraint scope, time, cost; way to achieve tactical goals

Project  portfolio management is way to achieve strategic goals; working on right projects, right area, with right resources

Project Stakeholders include Project Sponsor, Project Manager, Project Team, Support Staff, Customers, Users, Suppliers, Opponents.

Why PM is needed?

  • Project failure rate is high, reasons:
    • poor PM discipline
    • lack of C level support
    • no linkage to business strategy
    • wrong team member
    • no measures for evaluation
    • no risk management
    • inability to manage change
  • PM gives advantages:
    • better control of resource
    • improved customer relation
    • higher quality, reliability & profit margin
    • improved productivity & coordination
    • higher work morale
    • shorter time development, lower cost

PM knowledge areas include Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, HR, Communication, Risk, Procurement, and Stakeholder.

PM Tools & Techniques

  • Implementation:
    • Scope: Project charter, scope statement, WBS
    • Time: Gantt chart, network diagram, critical path analysis, critical chain schedule
    • Cost: cost estimates, earned value management
  • Super Tools: Scheduling software, Scope statement, Requirement analysis, Lesson-learned report
  • Tools: Progress report, Kick-off meetings, Gantt chart, Change request

Project success: met scope, time, & cost; satisfy customer/sponsor, result met objective

  • Key Success:
    • User involvement
    • Executive support
    • Clear business objective
    • Emotional maturity
    • Optimizing scope
    • Agile process
    • Project management expertise
    • Skilled resources
    • Execution
    • Tools & infrastructure
  • Success company:
    • use integrated PM tools
    • grow project leaders
    • develop streamlined project delivery process
    • measure project health using metrics
  • Best practice is by assure project is driven by & fit w/ business; engage stakeholders

Project Manager

  • Role: planning, scheduling, coordinating, working w/ people
  • Suggested skill: comfortable w/ change, understand organization, able to lead team; hard & soft skills:
    • communication
    • organizational.
    • team building
    • leadership
    • coping
    • technology
  • 10 most important:
    • people skill
    • ledership
    • listening
    • integrity, ethical behavior, consistent
    • strong team building
    • conflict resolution/management
    • critical thinking/problem solving
    • understand priority
  • Different skill for different situation
    • large project: leadership, experience, planning, people, communication, team building
    • high uncertainty: risk & expectation management, leadership, people, planning
    • novel: leadership, people, vision, confidence, expectation management, listening
  • Certification for PM -> PMP by PMI


Chapter 2: Project Management and Information Technology Context


  • Operate in broad organization environment
    • structural frame: role & responsibility
    • HR frame: organization need align with people need
    • political frame: organization as coalition composed of varied individual; issue: conflict & power
    • symbolic frame: symbol & meaning (culture, language, etc.)
  • Use system thinking: analytical approach to management & problem solving
    • system philosophy: things as system
    • system analysis: problem solving approach
    • system management: address business, technological, & organizational issue
  • Assure alignment w/ business need


  • Structure
    • functional: based on function
    • project: based on program
    • matrix: there are functional & program manager
  • Culture: shared assumptions, values, & behaviors characterizeable
    • member identity *
    • group emphasis *
    • unit integration *
    • risk tolerance *
    • reward criteria *
    • conflict tolerance *
    • open system focus *
    • people focus
    • control
    • means-ends
  • Top management can help PMgr by: provide adequate resources, approving unique project needs, getting cooperation, monitoring & coaching
  • Best practice: IT governance – authority & control for key IT activities (infrastructure, use, & PM)
  • Commitment to IT: positive attitude, have CIO, assign non-IT to IT
  • Organizational standard: using standard form, software, & guideline, create PM office

Project Life Cycle: collection of project phases

  • Phases
    • what work will be performed in each phase
    • what deliverables
    • how to control the work
  • Consists
    • early: resource lowest, risk highest, stakeholder influence greatest
    • middle: resource more needed
    • final: ensure requirement
  • Traditional PLC
    • Project Feasibility:
      • Concept: business case, preliminary cost estimate, 2 level WBS
      • Development: project management plan, budgetary coast estimate, 3+ level WBS
    • Project Acquisition
      • Implementation: last work package, definitive cost estimate, performace report
      • Close out: completed work, lesson learned, cust acceptance

SDLC: System Development Life Cycle – framework for describing phases in developing & maintaining IS

  • Predictive Life Cycle: scope articulated, schedule & cost can be predicted, ex:
    • waterfall: well defined linear stage system development & support
    • spiral: develop using iterative/spiral approach
    • incremental: provide progressive software
    • prototyping: develop prototype to clarify requirement
    • RAD: produce quickly, ex: agile – collaboration between programming team & business expert
  • Adaptive Software Development: unclear requirement, mission driven, component based, using time-based cycle

Why need project phases & management review? To know phase exit/kill point

IT Project Context

  • very diverse in size, complexity, product, application area, resource requirement
  • diverse background & skill of the team
  • diverse technology
  • Trends: globalization, outsourcing, virtual team (adv & disadv)
  • Issue: communication, trust, common work practice, tools
  • Suggestion: employ greater project discipline, think global act local, keep project momentum, use newer tools & technology

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